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Being Adrenergic

Heart failure is a clinical syndrome that occurs over time after a cardiac injury or chronic stress causing a decline in contractile function of this pumping efficiency of the heart. It is marked by a dynamic interplay between underlying myocyte dysfunction and compensatory mechanisms that are neurohumoral in nature as these signals attempt to stimulate the pump to maintain cardiac output. Among these neurohormonal mechanisms, elevated activities of the adrenergic nervous system, of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, and of several cytokines play central roles.These systems are initially activated to compensate for the reduced cardiac function and to maintain cardiac output. However, upon long-term presence of the initial insult to the heart muscle, cardiac function ultimately succumbs to their deleterious effects on myocytes and other cells of the heart, leading to cardiac decompensation and progressively worsening function and the inability to sustain daily life activities. T…

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